The household questionnaire assesses household demographics and socioeconomic status based on household characteristics such as source of water, having electricity, sanitation facility, roof, wall and floor materials, plus asset indicators including durable goods (e.g., television, radio, bicycle and motorcycle), and ownership of the house and land. Manila: Department of Health; 2009. This thesis is wholeheartedly dedicated to my family in the Philippines – Papa Polo, Mama Bebette, Manong Tonton, AJ, and Lynlyn – and to the Persons with Disabilities sector on the planet who still struggles to access quality and inclusive education. Persons with Disabilities (PWDs) in the Phils. Nossal Institute for Global Health, The University of Melbourne, Level 4, Alan Gilbert Building, 161 Barry Street, Carlton, VIC, 3010, Melbourne, Australia, Social Development Research Centre, De La Salle University, Manila, Philippines, Graeme Ferdinand Armecin, Jerome Zayas & Ma Jesusa Marco, Centre for Health Equity, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia, You can also search for this author in Andrich D. A Rating formulation for ordered response categories. Article  The authors declare that they have no competing interests. <> Springer Nature. These prevalence estimates are different from those derived from the 2010 Census of Population and Housing and the World Report on Disability because of differences in the methods used for measuring disability. However, having a disability and negative family attitudes were reported as barriers for people with disabilities participating in work, community meetings, religious activities, and social activities suggesting stigma associated with disability in these communities. Each question asked for the level of difficulty on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from no difficulty to unable to do [1]. Prevalence estimates from the RAD survey are, however, closer to the estimates made by Mitra and Sambamoorthy who, using only questions related to difficulty in seeing, moving around, concentrating or remembering things, and self-care from 15 questions used in the WHS, estimated disability prevalence to be 8.3 % in the Philippines [20]. The survey was validated in Bangladesh and Fiji [15]. However, socioeconomic factors associated with disability and the level of access to services and participation in the community compared to people without disability were not studied. As a person with a disability, she yearns for the time when former leprosy patients can mingle and live with family members and be accepted fully by society. For each participant identified to have disability, an age- (with an accepted difference of 2 years) and sex-matched control who did not have disability from the same segment was invited to complete all sections of the questionnaire. The journals have published both employer and person with disability perspectives on the barriers in the hiring process. Seeing difficulty was the most commonly reported difficulty among participants aged between 35 and 54 years in Ligao City (Table 2). Asset index was used as a proxy indicator for wealth status using principal components analysis on the data from the household questionnaire [16]. Multivariate logistic and linear regression analyses were undertaken to identify differences in quality of life and access to the community between cases and controls. Prevalence and correlates of disability in Bogra district of Bangladesh using the Rapid Assessment of Disability survey. endstream Population Health Metrics The well-being section includes items such as good health, making friends, being safe in daily life, and taking care of one’s self, where the frequency of experiencing the situation was reported on a 4-point Likert scale ranging from ‘never’ to ‘all of the time.’ The last section on access to the community is comprised of domains related to health, education, work, social, legal, religious, rehabilitation, and other services. 2010. Google Scholar. World Health Organization. New York: United Nations Development Programme; 2014. Measuring disability and monitoring the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities: the work of the Washington Group on Disability Statistics. BMC Public Health. stream in the Philippines, exposure to – and information about – persons with disabilities are minimal, and rehabilitation services are very limited. Terms and Conditions, In both locations the prevalence of disability was significantly higher among those with no schooling. BMC Public Health. 2014;36(11):940–7. The reference groups were 18–24 years, male, fifth quintile, college/technical education. Rasch analysis was used to derive person measures for the well-being section. 2015;16(4):1–31. 4 0 obj <> Trani J-F, Browne J, Kett M, Bah O, Morlai T, Bailey N, et al. endobj Prevalence of functional limitations in Quezon City and Ligao City. This is perhaps the reason why the institutional and legal environment has been made favorable to this particular group, especially in the area of employment. International recognition that people with disabilities were excluded from the Millennium Development Goals has led to better inclusion of people with disabilities in the recently agreed Global Goals for Sustainable Development (SDGs) 2015–2030. Individuals were ranked according to the asset index of the household in which they resided. There is growing recognition of the need for disability-disaggregated data to increase understanding of the prevalence of disability and, equally importantly from a development programming perspective, to support the design, implementation, and monitoring of effective, inclusive development programs [1]. But, if a person develops the habit of drinking for at least three bottles of beers every night, and his or her minimum wage is $5 a day, that would mean that spending 1% a day on beer is already 20% of his earned money (Valbuena, 2013). Field supervisors and data collectors were recruited based on their skills and previous experience. For every five PWD, one (18.9 percent) was aged 0 to 14 years, three (59.0 percent) were in the working age group (aged 15 to 64 years), and one (22.1 percent) was aged 65 years and over. This means that the subject in question will have difficulties to develop daily and ordinary tasks that, to the rest of the individuals, they are not complicated. Manila is the capital of the country, located in Luzon which is the largest island. The prevalence of disability was higher among females than males in both locations, although the difference was not statistically significant (Table 1). For ease of interpretation the scores were rescaled to range from 0 to 100, where a high score represented better well-being. In the Philippines, women and children with disabilities were found to have lower literacy and school participation rates, and generally have lower educational attainment, than male PWDs and non-disabled children, respectively (Reyes, 2015). Age was grouped into five categories (18–24, 25–34, 35–44, 45–55, and 55 years and over), and education into four categories (no schooling, elementary, high school, and college/technical). However, respondents who needed services were provided with appropriate referrals. The RAD survey was developed to measure different domains of disability described in the International Classification of Functioning and Disability (ICF) framework [14, 15]. Disability in post-earthquake Haiti: prevalence and inequality in access to services. <> 2015;37(12):1082–9. Our analysis highlights that psychological distress is common among people with disabilities. A thesis abstract should consist of 350 words or less including the heading. Huq NL, Edmonds T, Baker S, Busija L, Devine A, Fotis K, et al. We anticipate that, in the context of the Philippines, most people working outside the home would not have moderate or severe disability. Psychological distress was the most commonly reported difficulty in the two samples: 2.5 (95 % CI: 1.9, 3.2) in Quezon City and 5.3 % (95 % CI: 3.8, 7.2) in Ligao City (Fig. The matching of cases and controls was not complete, particularly among those aged 55 years and over, and therefore analyses were adjusted by the matching variables of age and sex. Disability indicators for the SDG framework. <> World Health Organization. Given the current global agenda for disability inclusion, it is crucial to increase understanding of the situation of people with disabilities in the Philippines. After surviving a fall from a tower in season one, Bran ended up as a paraplegic who had to rely on Hodor, a strong but gentle stablehand with an intellectual disability. The prevalence of functional limitation was 7.2 (95 % CI: 6.2, 8.3) in Quezon City and 14.0 % (95 % CI: 11.5, 17.0) in Ligao City. Persons with disability were more likely to be in the ages 5 to 19 years and 45 to 64 years. In accordance with local practice in the Philippines, relevant barangay kapitans (equivalent to head of a village or ward) were informed about the study and their endorsement was sought to facilitate introduction into the community. Consistent with other surveys [1, 3, 5, 20], this study also found the prevalence of disability is associated with increasing age and lack of schooling. Google Scholar. The prevalence of disability among adults in District 2 of Quezon City and in Ligao City is higher than the estimated national prevalence of disability derived from the 2010 Philippines census. xv Chapter 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND Introduction The Person with Disability or most commonly called as PWD is a minority group of individuals who experience oppression by means of physical and/or psychological abnormalities that they have received either from heredity or at birth. J Int Dev. The resulting measures showed adequate psychometric properties and therefore the Rasch scores were used in subsequent analyses. Most cognitive disabilities have some sort of basis in the biology and mental processes is the most obvious in the case of People with disabilities face all forms of discrimination and exclusion from the social, cultural, political, and economic life of their communities [1]. PubMed  J}�Kқ��0ܛ���ͺ�c���{.֓rI/�Y���R��������E۵�T����ʆ#�@�:9X0�h��"L�е��9)OC��F Psychological distress was the most commonly reported difficulty for participants aged between 18 and 54 years in Quezon City and among the age groups 18 and 34 years, and 55 years and over in Ligao City. This included a cross-sectional household survey using the Rapid Assessment of Disability (RAD), in two districts of the Philippines. Detailed maps with landmarks and roads were obtained from the National Statistical Office or drawn. <>/XObject<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 720 540] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> Disabil Rehabil. The prevalence of disability among adults in District 2 of Quezon City and in Ligao City is higher than the estimated national prevalence of disability derived from the 2010 Philippines census. The well-being scores were significantly lower for people with disabilities (mean ± SD: 57.3 ± 14.6) compared to people without disability (mean ± SD: 66.1 ± 14.1), p < 0.001. Article  Psychosocial and emotional issues are not usually considered in disability data collection and people with psychosocial disability are often excluded from mainstream services and policies. The Age and Sex Structure of the Philippine Population: (Facts from the 2010 Census). UN DESA. Disability and poverty in developing countries: a multidimensional study. <> The demographic section includes items related to age, gender, ethnicity, religion, marital status, education, occupation, health conditions, and information on any assistive devices used. x��UMo�0���Q*E�$��k� C�P��Nc�s2�����|tvb9d>>�"a4����t�u��n'c� 4h��F"���g5Ty4�ye4@x���:Fm[F˫h�#��t� ������U:�0_��L���|O0�8vD��I���o����M���N��$ In Quezon City, the prevalence of disability increased with age from 2.7 % (95 % CI: 1.6, 4.7) in 18–24 years age group to 12.7 % (95 % CI: 9.7, 16.7) in respondents 55 years and over. The households were then divided into quintiles, with the first quintile representing the poorest in the sample, and the fifth quintile representing the wealthiest. All authors contributed to the writing of the manuscript’s final version. This finding is in contradiction with the current understanding of the relationship between poverty and disability [1, 3, 23, 24]. Key Words: Persons with disabilities, PWDs, Philippine Star, Philippine Daily Inquirer View Thesis Although this survey had a good response rate, the majority of non-responders, particularly in Quezon City, were men either because they were away for work or because they did not want to participate in the survey. These findings are consistent with other surveys [1, 25, 26]. Manila: Katipunan ng Maykapansanan sa Pilipinas, Inc. (KAMPI) and Disability Rights Promotion International (DRPI); 2009. (632) 8651-7800 DOH Call Center Telephone No: (632) 8651-7800 local 5003-5004 (632) 165-364 Mobile No (DOH Main Office): +63919-1601418 Email Address: callcenter@doh.gov.ph All participants provided written or verbal informed consent. endobj Disability is also associated with lower well-being and reduced participation across a number of domains of community life. ... themselves to ensuring that each and every person can access the conditions required to live as self-determining individuals. Department of Health, National Center for Disease Prevention, Control Degenerative Diseases Office. endobj The prevalence of disability was not significantly different among people aged between 18 and 44 years in Ligao City. 1). Filmer D, Pritchett LH. The self-assessment of functioning section includes items related to functioning in eight domains: vision, hearing, communication, mobility, gross and fine motor, cognitive, appearance, and psychological distress. 2011;11 Suppl 4:S4. W-DARE is funded by the Australian Government’s Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT) through the Australian Development Research Awards Scheme under an award titled exual and Reproductive Health of Women with Disability in the Philippines: Building evidence for action. MEASUREMENT OF DISABILITY (PHILIPPINES) Wilma A. Guillen Assistant National Statistician Social Sector Statistics Service SSO, PSA UN Regional Meeting on Disability Measurement and Statistics in support of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the 2020 World Population and Housing Census Program 26-28 July 2016 Google Scholar. However, the majority of respondents (65 % in Quezon City and 78 % in Ligao City) with psychological distress also had co-morbid conditions related to sensory, physical, cognitive, and communication functional limitations. disability are improving in Ireland and worldwide. The prevalence of disability was 6.8 (95 % CI: 5.9, 7.9) and 13.6 % (95 % CI: 11.4, 16.2) in Quezon City and Ligao City respectively. Similar to many lower- and middle-income countries, the population is young with a median age of 23.4 years, and highly urbanized with 45.3% of people now living in urban areas [7]. Disability (present or absent), as measured using the self-assessment of functioning section, was the dependent variable. Philippines Statistics Authority. This research paper is made possible through the help and support from many people, There is a need for promoting counseling services and other support programs for people with psychosocial disability but also for those with other types of disability. Confidence intervals (CI) for prevalence estimates and regression odds ratios were calculated with adjustment for clustering effects in the study design using the generalized estimating equation approach. Cite this article. While this could potentially affect the generalizability of the findings, the impact may be insignificant because the response rate was good in both areas. 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